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Wednesday, January 16, 2013

Simple Hybrid Audio Amplifier Circuit



Here’s an amplifier circuit that based on the BUZ11 can be replaced by an IRFZ34N and an ECC83 can be used instead of the ECC88. In that case the anode voltage should be reduced slightly to 155 V. The ECC83 (or its US equivalent the 12AX7) requires 2 x 6.3 V for the filament supply and there is no screen between the two triodes, normally connected to pin 9. This pin is now connected to the common of the two filaments. The filaments are connected to ground via R5. If you’re keeping an eye on the quality, you should at least use MKT types for coupling capacitors C1, C4 and C7. Better still are MKP capacitors. For C8 you should have a look at Panasonic’s range of audio grade electrolyts. P1 is used to set the amount of negative feedback. The larger the negative feedback is, the flatter the frequency response will be, but the smaller the overall gain becomes. This is the figure of the circuit;


With P2 you can set the quiescent current through T2. We have chosen a fairly high current of 1.3 A, making the output stage work in Class A mode. This does generate a relatively large amount of heat, so you should use a large heat sink for T2 with a thermal coefficient of 1 K/W or better. For L1 we connected two secondary windings in series from a 2x18V/225 VA toroidal transformer. The resulting inductance of 150 mH was quite a bit more than the recommended 50 mH. However, with an output power of 1 W the amplifier had difficulty reproducing signals below 160 Hz. The distortion rose to as much as 9% for a signal of 20 Hz at 100 mW. To properly reproduce low-frequency signals the amplifier needs a much larger coil with an iron core and an air gap. This prevents the core from saturating when a large DC current flows through the coil.

Rolling Shutter Motor Control Circuit



This is a circuit for an electrically operated rolling shutter usually has a standard control panel with a three-position switch: up, down and stop. If you would like to automate the opening and closing with a time controlled switch, a few additional wires will have to be connected. Typically, the controls are implemented as indicated in the schematic ‘Normal Situation’. This is the figure of the circuit;


If this is indeed the case, then you can see in ‘New Situation’ how the shutter can be automated with a timer. There is only one method to determine the actual schematic of your control circuit, and that is to open the control box and using an ohmmeter, pencil and paper to check out and draw the circuit. Make sure you turn the power off first though! Connect a 230-V relay (with both the contacts and the coil rated 230 VAC) to the timer. The changeover switch between automatic and manual control needs to be rated 230 VAC as well and may not be a hazard for the user. The relay and switch are preferably fitted in a plastic mains adapter enclosure with built-in plug, which is plugged into the timer. It is a good idea to check first if this will actually fit. Because of the manual/automatic-switch, the operation is completely fail-safe and misunderstandings are out of the question. The switch prevents the issue of conflicting commands (with disastrous consequences) when, for example, the shutter is being automatically raised and manually lowered at the same time.